- Johann Gottfried Herder, Journal meiner Reise im Jahr 1769 (Herders Werke : In 5 Bd. – Berlin; Weimar, 1969. – Bd. 1. – S. 135).
Johann Gottfried Herder (1744-1803), 18th century German philosopher, theologian, ethnographer, poet and literary critic who formally belongs to the period of Enlightenment yet, as many other German authors of that period, in many respects was an anti-thesis to the main premises of the classic French Enlightenment. Often credited as a founder of "cultural nationalism," he famously paralleled nations with the thoughts in the mind of God. Herder's organicist approaches to history, cultures and languages have become a cornerstone of anti-universalist currents and doctrines from Oswald Spengler's "morphology of cultures" to the Sapir–Whorf linguistic relativity hypothesis. A leading figure of Sturm und Drang movement, he greatly influenced Wolfgang von Goethe as a major precursor of Romanticism.
During his stay in Riga from 1764 to 1769, Herder expressed his admiration for the Eastern European peoples and has become an advocate of their national liberation and reawakening. Again, in this respect, he was a forerunner of both anti-colonialist studies and the great-power geopolitical doctrines, be them of the German origin like Friedrich Naumann's conception of Mitteleuropa, or Eastern European variations of Intermarium. As an inventor of the term "folksong," Herder created many collections of European folksongs, Latvian in particular.